Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies)


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Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyich

His piano compositions often embody polyphonic intonations of folk song elements, such as runs in oriental music and charming supporting tunes and musical elements found in Russian folk songs. He developed a Russian national piano style based on his studies of Russian folk songs, which he treated programmatically. Pictorial elements make his piano music unique in Russian art. Piano Sonata: Dedicated to Liapunov. Less unconventional than the Liszt sonata.


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It has four movements andantino-mazurka-intermezzo-allegronon troppo ma con fuoco. This suggests that the work is a suite rather than a sonata. Balakirev does not try to impose an artificial unity on his works by facticious means, such as Tschaikovsky uses, but he does look back,in the finale, to the intermezzo. The ruthless and manly opening subject of the finale later is followed by a more feminine counterpart of itself, related to it only by a single fragmentary motive, and this feminine counterpart undergoes a change which seems to relate it to part of the subject of the first movement.

The first movement is based on the idea of reconcililiation of the fugue with sonata form. The subject is a long one, 8 bars cantilena, Russian characteristics. The mazurka tha follows is very characteristic Russian like. The intermezzo is thoughtful, enigmatic, simple, and the finale is fiery. Balakirev exploits the percussive possibilities of the instrument, and makes the listener accept purely pianistic effects as substitutes for orchestral color.

A striking feature of all movements is widespread left-hand arpeggio figures often distributed over nearly three octaves hints of Scriabin. The harmonic texture of his music is always clear. His music conforms with the rhythmic, melodic and harmonic patterns of Russian tunes. No literal quotations of folk songs, because he preferred to generalize representations and forms of musical expression rather than reproduce the typical and significant meanings of Russian national music.

He was interested in oriental culture. Along with Tschaikovsky was the founder of Russian symphony. He carried on the traditions of Glinka and at the same time enriched Russian music with an original style. His style evolved from the integration of Western classic Romantic traditions with features of Russian folk songs and oriental folklore.

Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Hardback or Cased Book)

As a composer he was mainly influenced by Western romanticism. In his musical style, Cui is a romantic miniaturist.

He expressed himself best in short lyrical miniatures and this aspect of his talent prevented him from attaining great symphonic developments. His songs and piano compositions are Schumannesque or Schopinesque. They are suitable for salon or domestic consumption but not for the concert stage. Wrote character pieces for salon use mostly.


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The only large scale work he wrote for the piano was his Suite Op. The rest of his output for the piano consists mostly of miniatures, such as "Kaleidoscope" Op. One of the most successful of such works is the "Trois Valses", Op. But Cui was very busy throughout his long life, composing 6 operas, chamber music, orchestral suites, a violin sonata, more than songs, all very melodious compositions which one can easily and unjustly dismiss with faint praise as being "charming".

His creative work was based on Russian national art. The sources of Russian folklore, especially the folk song, which was approachable to diverse masses of listeners, helped him form his musical style.

He is one of the greatest operatic composers. He was also deeply interested in pagan antiquity, sorcery and the ceremonial aspects of it. Many folk songs, authentic or altered appear in his compositions. Oriental music is important in his compositions, and through studies of the music of Eastern countries, he was able to create generalized musical representations of the East in arabesque, chromatic and complex melodic patterns. He also had a preference for programmatic imagery, a love of harmonic colors, and in that field he was a follower of Glinka and Western romantics, especially Liszt.

Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilyich

He also employed patterns of classical tonic-subdominant-tonic functions I-IV-V-I combining them with independent groups of subordinate harmonies. In his modulations, he preferred tonalities separated by diminished, minor and major third intervals. He often preferred subdominant patterns. Korsakov has not written much piano music.

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Rubinstein | russian-art-song

His main contribution is to the reformation of music drama. His style was nationalistic and realistic and it depends on the exact meaning of words and on intonation, on the psychological aspects of a literary text. He was interested in the experience of daily life. He was the first Russian composer to whom a mass of people was a personality. To him, national rhythmic, melodic and harmonic features of folk songs were aspects of expressive peasant speech, which he developed by musical means. So, the originality of his style distinguishes him from other 19th century Russian composers.

The harmonic language of Mussorgsky anticipates Western impressionism. He rejected designs in music. Pictures at an Exhibition: During the summer of , Mussorgsky wrote two songs in the cycle Sunless, and then composed a most unusual tribute to his late friend Victor Hartmann. Mussorgsky had been very moved by these sketches and water colors, and decided to reproduce some of them in music as a memorial to his friend. In this set of pictures for the piano, he concentrated upon rhythmic suggestion rather than harmonic colouring.

The Promenade comes back in different tonalities and different characters in between most pieces. Very light and grace notes and trills give the picture. Any news of her, regardless of how minor or innocent, would cause Tchaikovsky loss of sleep and appetite, an inability to work, and for him to fixate on imminent death. She was eventually joined by timber merchant Mitrofan Belyayev, railway magnate Savva Mamontov and textile manufacturer Pavel Tretyakov. Von Meck differed from her fellow philanthropists in two ways.

Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music

First, instead of promoting nationalist artists, she helped Tchaikovsky, who was seen as a composer of the Western-oriented aristocracy. Second, while Belyayev, Mamontov and Tretyakov made a public display of their largess, von Meck conducted her support of Tchaikovsky as a largely private matter. In , Kotek suggested commissioning some pieces for violin and piano from Tchaikovsky. Von Meck, who had liked what she had heard of his music, agreed. Von Meck and Tchaikovsky exchanged well over 1, letters, making theirs perhaps the most closely documented relationship between patron and artist.

In these letters Tchaikovsky was more open about his creative processes than he was to any other person. Von Meck eventually paid Tchaikovsky an annual subsidy of 6, rubles, which enabled him to concentrate on composition. With this patronage came a relationship that, while remaining epistolary, grew extremely intimate. She suddenly ceased her financial subsidy in as a result of her own financial difficulties. While Tchaikovsky was not in as urgent a need of her money as he had been, her friendship and encouragement had remained an integral part of his emotional life.

He remained bewildered and resentful about her absence for the remaining three years of his life, and she was just as distressed about his apparent dropping of her friendship, which she was led to believe was because he had never cared for her personally and he had no further use for her once her subsidy had stopped.

This was completely untrue. Tchaikovsky remained abroad for a year after the disintegration of his marriage, during which he completed Eugene Onegin , orchestrated the Fourth Symphony and composed the Violin Concerto. He returned to the Moscow Conservatory in the autumn of but only as a temporary move; he informed Nikolai Rubinstein on the day of his arrival that he would stay no longer than December.

Once his professorship had ended officially, he traveled incessantly throughout Europe and rural Russia. Assured of a regular income from von Meck, he lived mainly alone, did not stay long anywhere and avoided social contact whenever possible.

His troubles with Antonina continued. She agreed to divorce him, then refused. While he was on an extended visit to Moscow, she moved into an apartment directly above where he was staying. This could be why his best work from this period, except for the piano trio which he wrote upon the death of Nikolai Rubinstein, is found in genres which did not require deep personal expression. Nikolai Rubinstein suggested a grand commemorative piece for association with these related festivities. Tchaikovsky began the project in October , finishing it within six weeks.

On 23 March , Nikolai Rubinstein died in Paris. Tchaikovsky, holidaying in Rome, went immediately to attend the funeral. Petersburg in November Now 44 years old, in Tchaikovsky began to shed his unsociability and restlessness. I saw the whole audience was moved, and grateful to me.

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Thanks to these it is worth living and laboring. Its only other production had been by students from the Conservatory. In addition, thanks to Ivan Vsevolozhsky, Director of the Imperial Theaters and a patron of the composer, Tchaikovsky was awarded a lifetime annual pension of 3, rubles from the Tsar.

Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies) Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies)
Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies) Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies)
Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies) Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies)
Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies) Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies)
Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies) Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies)
Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies) Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies)
Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies) Anton Rubinstein: A Life in Music (Russian Music Studies)

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